A large domestic market induces an expansion in output ensuring the economies of scale and consequent reduction in costs. According to the factor endowment theory, a country with a relatively cheaper cost of labour would export labour-intensive products, while a country where the labour is scarce and capital is relatively abundant would export capital-intensive goods.
The colonies served as cheap sources for primary commodities, such as raw cotton, grains, spices, herbs and medicinal plants, tea, coffee, and fruits, both for consumption and also as raw material for industries. Empirical tests using the gravity model have till date enjoyed stupendous success.
The chief reason behind the existence of a variety of products is that producers try to convert their ordinary products into brand royalty products. In any case, consumers do, in general, show an inclination towards variety. In addition, the gap in technology and preference and the ability of the customers in international markets also determine the stage of international product life cycle IPLC.
This explains the development of industrial clusters, such as IT industries around Bangalore, textile industries around Tirupur, and metal handicrafts around Moradabad. The bicycle is at the declining stage of its life cycle in industrialized countries whereas it is still at a growth or maturity stage in a number of developing countries.
Barriers to trade may exist, and goods must be transported, stored, and distributed.
He opined that even if two countries have similar per capita incomes, differing distributions of total income in the two countries can lead to intra-industry trade. To remain competitive, large global firms benefit from having strong, efficient supporting and related industries to provide the inputs required by the industry.
Countries differ widely in terms of the products and services traded. Determine which international trade theory is most relevant today and how it continues to evolve. The United States has ample arable land that can be used for a wide range of agricultural products. Local firm characteristics include firm strategy, industry structure, and industry rivalry.
Linder opined that a good might be sent in both directions—both exported and imported by the same country. The barriers to entry The obstacles a new firm may face when trying to enter into an industry or new market.
As indicated in Table 2. In turn, the county would lose its competitive edge in terms of price. The theories covered in this chapter are simply that—theories.
Smith posited that the wealth of a nation does not lie in building huge stockpiles of gold and silver in its treasury, but the real wealth of a nation is measured by the level of improvement in the quality of living of its citizens, as reflected by the per capita income.
It has been observed that the majority of trade occurs between nations that have similar characteristics. These nations would then trade with each other in similar, but differentiated goods. Their theory focused on MNCs and their efforts to gain a competitive advantage against other global firms in their industry.
However, what remains clear is that international trade is complex and is impacted by numerous and often-changing factors. This would result in a total output of 15 tonnes of tea and Hence these countries have become the optimal locations for labor-intensive industries like textiles and garments.
It has resulted in the creation of a large number of export promotion organizations that look after the promotion of exports from the country. Let us assume that in a trade troika, countries 1 and 2 join a free trade area and country 2 levies higher duties against country 3 than country 1 does.
According to Avinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz and Micheal Spence behind the demand for differentiated goods there is simply the desirability of variety as such, which is implicit in the traditional convex to the origin indifference curves.
Herbert Grubel and P. The theory assumed that production of the new product will occur completely in the home country of its innovation. Once again, labour costs play an important role and the developed countries are busy introducing other products. Since income distribution is unequal in the two countries, each one of them has demand for both the products.
This phenomenon is also known as preference similarity. These exceptions to the rule may be elaborated: The Linder theory asserts that tastes of consumers are strongly influenced by their income levels; the per capita income level of a country will yield a particular pattern of tastes.
Alternatively, the UK can employ its entire resources i. The theory of mercantilism attributes and measures the wealth of a nation by the size of its accumulated treasures. In a large country like India, transport costs for a product may play a role in causing intra-industry trade, especially if the product has large bulk relative to its value.Overlapping demand theory Intra-industry trade theory a.
explains why the United States might export autos and import clothing *b. explains why the United States might export and import differentiated versions of the same product, such as different types of autos c.
assumes that transport costs are very low or do not exist d%(7). According to the theory of intra-industry trade, many manufactured goods undergo a trade cycle in which the home country initially is an exporter and eventually becomes an importer of a product.
The Linder hypothesis is an economics conjecture about international trade patterns: The more similar the demand structures of countries, the more they will trade with one another. Inability of the county based theories to explain and predict the existence and growth of intra-industry trade 3.
Failure of Leontief and other researchers to empirically validate Heckscher-Ohlin theory. “overlapping demand,” which provides an explanation of trade structure in terms of aggregate demand. Attention is drawn to new developments in trade. The theory of overlapping demands predicts that trade in manufactured goods is unimportant for countries with very different: a.
Tastes and preferences b. Expectations of future interest rate levels c. Per-capita income levels d.Download